Delaminated Autochrome Plates - Development of a Consolidation
Technique for a Group of Autochromes in the Photograph Collection
of the Albertina, Vienna
The collection of 2,135 autochromes belonging to the Albertina, Vienna (formerly part of the Collection Eder at the Höhere Graphische Bundes-Lehr- und Versuchsanstalt (GLV), Vienna) was surveyed. The most severe damage was identified as delamination of the photo emulsion from its glass support. A method for readhering the emulsion was developed. It involved the local application of xylenes on the glass support which softened the emulsion and allowed it to re-adhere to the glass. The image quality was not impaired by this treatment, and the physical stability of the photographs was significantly enhanced. The treatment was tested on original photographs, and a concept was developed for the treatment of the rest of the collection.
Das Autochromverfahren - Die Sammlung - Zustandserfassung - Schäden an den Autochromplatten - Restauratorisch-konservatorische Problemstellung - Konsolidierung mit Lösemittel - Arbeitsmethodik - Konservierungskonzept - Zusammenfassung - Danksagung - Anmerkungen
The Technology of Cameras and Photography in Journalistic
Applications - 1933-1939 (Part III)
In terms of press photographers' equipment, the 1930's brought about a clear improvement in the readiness to shoot by means of a faster operability of the cameras and by more sensitive films. Although 35mm format cameras united all of the technical advantages, like a coupled rangefinder, the union of shutter discharge and film transport, attachable exposure meters, and changeable and fast lenses, the question of the correct format for press photography remained in dispute. This changed when the Ministry for Propaganda linked the official authorization for the practice of the profession with the use of small cameras in 1937, resulting in an increasing preference for cameras such as Makina, Rolleiflex, Leica, and Contax. The printers' and editors' reservations could soon be largely eliminated by the frequently improving processing techniques for 35mm film; in addition, the onset of color photography, the first modern color slide films of which were only available in 35mm format, served as a further reason to increasingly use 35mm cameras for photojournalism.
Fototechnische Vorgaben der NS-"Pressebildnerei" - Schnellere Kamerabedienung - Bevorzugte Kameras der Presse - Schlüssel zum Kleinformat: verbessertes Filmmaterial - Unzufriedenheit mit den Kameramodellen - Unendliche Format-Frage - Kleinbild unzulänglich für die Presse - Oktroi des Propagandaministeriums - Kleinbild in Farbe - Erhöhung der Aufnahmegeschwindigkeit - Anmerkungen
Celluloid - Artistic Experimentation with the Film Material
This article discusses the base material of nitrate film: celluloid, and, above all, its use in 20th century art. Starting from the 1960's, film artists examined the specific technical circumstances of allegedly immaterial media images within so-called "material films"; their goal was to position handmade alternatives against the commercial Hollywood system by way of discourse about the production conditions. Various strategies may be found. Joseph Beuys left galvanized film rolls in the art systems; others, such as Peter Kubelka, investigated the tension between the material image carrier and the projection of the image by light. Nam June Paik looked at the use and abuse of film strips by means of "mechanofacture"; Carolee Schneeman, on the other hand, applied paint to celluloid in order to evoke physical processes of the body. Even in the digital age celluloid has not become obsolete as a material: Rebecca Horn uses it as a fragile memory of past stories in an installation, for example.
Materialkultur - Materialfilme - Mechanofaktur - Musealisierung - Anmerkungen
Fundamental Issues of Digital Archiving - Approaches to New
Solutions for Long-Term Preservation
Photographs are cultural heritage, artistic medium, historic document and visual documentation medium of the 19th and 20th century. One of the main problems is their slow deterioration. Due to a relatively low material stability, some form of damage is practically always present after 70 years of age. Fading of the dyes in color photographs may already cause visible changes after only 30 years. A further problem is the sheer quantity of photographs that are present. Digitization of image collections is therefore an attractive solution for a whole number of problems that museums and archives face. This article treats two main aspects: the longevity of digital data and issues to be considered during digitization.
Digitale Speicher: maximal zehn Jahre Lebensdauer? - Digitale Speicher: unbegrenzte Lebensdauer? - Digitale Langzeitarchivierung (Allgemeine Bemerkung - Prozedurale Kriterien - Redundanz - Migration - Medienqualität - Risiken durch Handling) - Technische Kriterien (Ordnungsdaten/administrative Metadaten - Beschreibende Metadaten - Dateiformat - Format der Datenträger - Medium) - Schlußbemerkungen - Anmerkungen
Distarnet: www.distarnet.ch | Freenet: http://freenetproject.org/cgi-bin/twiki/view/Main/WebHome | Mojo Nation: www.mojonation.net | Ocean Store: http://oceanstore.cs.berkeley.edu
Media and Science - Art History in the Digital Age
The triumph of digital media for the production, documentation and storage of images is significant as a paradigm change, due less to the new quality of rendition than to the fact that, on the one hand, combinations of media are very diverse, and on the other hand, new forms of research and diffusion are possible. Wholly new possibilities of communication (discussion forums in the internet, mailing lists, e-learning), documentation (databases), and presentation (digital models, animations) are altering the field of art history not only in terms of its infrastructure, but also by influencing the inquiries that art historians pose to their objects. A critical deliberation of the limitations of the work of art in relation to its medium should thus be a natural component of the undertakings of art history. This requires appropriate skills, both regarding the actual technical procedures and a methodical reflection of the same. For this reason, as of the summer semester of 2005, the Institute of Art History of the Ludwig Maximilians University in Munich is offering a PhD course, in which possible applications of digital media in the work of art historians are to be taught, practically tested, and critically reflected.
Die Medien der Kunst(geschichte) - Das digitale Bild - Die Datenbank - Multimediale Kommunikation - Digitale Kunstgeschichte: flexibel strukturierte Forschungsnetze - Anmerkungen
Aufbaustudiengang "Digitale Kunstgeschichte", Ludwig-Maximilian-Universität München, Institut für Kunstgeschichte: www.digitale-kunstgeschichte.de | Handschriftenforum Manuscripta Mediaevalia: www.manuscripta-mediaevalia.de | Verbunddatenbank Prometheus: www.prometheus-bildarchiv.de | E-Mail-Liste für Kunstgeschichte im H-Net: www.arthist.net | The H-Net Network for Museums and Museum Studies: www.h-net.org/~museum | Enzyklopädie Wikipedia: www.wikipedia.de
Memoriav - Network for the Preservation of the Audiovisual
Heritage of Switzerland
Sylvie Henguely and Peter Pfrunder wrote a detailed report on the state of the Swiss photography scene in Rundbrief Fotografie (numbers 37 and 38) in 2003. Following the proposed formation of closer networks formulated at the congress in Braunschweig, I would like to extend our viewpoint beyond photography to include sound documents, films, and videos. I would also like to illustrate the Swiss effort to improve the situation of the entire audiovisual heritage of the country.
Aufbau und Organisation - Die Tätigkeiten - Das Problem der Sichtbarkeit - Kulturgut in Gefahr - Die Mitglieder - Auswirkungen und Nachhaltigkeit der Projekte - Auswahl und Durchführung der Projekte - Anmerkungen - Adresse