Formaldhyde-The Toxic Rescuer: Its Application as Disinfection
and Hardening Agent
Whenever photographs must be disinfected or chemically restored after microbiological damage, one of the first treatment steps is hardening the gelatin layer with formaldehyde. Especially if a photograph was attacked by mold, any contact with water could have a desastrous effect on the gelatin. It goes without saying that the detailed explanation of the function as well as of the riscs of formaldehyde in photo conservation is directed towards professionals with the relevant knowledge and with access to suitable laboratory equipment. But even laymen will learn a lot about the properties of a chemical compound which is omnipresent, often makes people feel insecure and still can hardly be replaced. In its original form, this article was part of the author's diploma thesis at the Cologne University of Applied Sciences, Department of Conservation.
Allgemeine Eigenschaften - Toxikologie - Vorkommen in Holzprodukten - Verwendung als Biozid - Einsatz als Härtungsmittel (Chemismus der Härtung - Messungen zur Bestimmung der Effektivität der Härtung) - Fazit - Anmerkungen
The Technology of Cameras and Photography in Journalistic
Applications: World War II (Part IV)
Already before the war, press photographers were being prepared for their role as ´soldiers of the camera´ for their upcoming assignments and in the use of their equipment. By the beginning of the war in 1939, approximately 140 propaganda companies (PK) photo journalists were serving the 13 PK of the army, the navy and the air force; with the escalating course of the war, their number rose to approximately 400 by 1942. Added to these were at least 66 photographers of the war press coverage platoons of the Waffen-SS, established in 1940. Commercially available equipment was predominantly procured for the PK equipment of the press photographers. The Leica was considered "the only suitable weapon for shooting"; the Contax, however, was also used. Between 1939 and 1942, both camera systems underwent technical additions and improvements that not rarely primarily suited military requirements. Further innovations were mostly limited to medium format cameras and accessories, for example exposure meters, which enabled better handling of color film material. Color images made up only a fraction of the approximately 1.2 million photographs taken by PK journalists until 1943, however, and were predominantly published in the illustrated propaganda periodical ´Signal´. Prior to publication, the PK photographs had to traverse a censorship system that was inter-coordinated between the Ministry of Propaganda and the armed forces; only then were they given to the local and foreign press through select picture agencies.
Einbindung von Fotoreportern in Propagandaaktionen - Soldatische und fachliche Ausbildung von Fotoreportern - Propagandakompanien bei Heer, Luftwaffe, Marine und Waffen-SS - Ausbau und Reduzierung der Propagandakompanien - Geräteausstattung der Kriegsbildberichter - Neuerungen der Fototechnik - Farbfotografie - Kamera- und Aufnahmetechnik in den Waffengattungen - Bildproduktion, Zensur und Bildvertrieb - "Bildberichter - Soldaten der Kamera" - Anmerkungen
Producing and Processing Pictures: A Philosophical
Contemplation on Media
The constitutive role of technology within the reality of media is often ignored when one contemplates photography. Only by this means can one succeed in seeing photography as what it is: rather than an intermediate between humans and the world, thrust between subject and object, it is instead a reality machine. On the basis of and leading up to this approach, this contribution discusses developments in the history (and theory) of photography as the production of artificial worlds in which one may operate (construct a building, fabricate a machine ...).
Alpine Photographs on the Internet: The Development of a
Trans-national Internet Database
The collections of the German Alpine Association (Munich), the Austrian Alpine Association (Innsbruck) and the Alpine Association South Tyrol (Bozen) hold approximately 200,000 photographs. Since the establishment of these mountain climber associations in the years 1862 and 1869, much material has come together: numerous private photo albums, expedition documents and photographs by renowned high mountain photographers, who have strikingly documented the transforming interest in the mountains over the past 150 years and revealed changes in the alpine landscape. Photographs of many types and formats may be found: albumen, collodion, even modern RC prints, glass transparencies and negatives on glass and film. In the context of the project "Historic Alpine Archives", these extensive photograph holdings as well as other components of the collections such as documents and art objects will be professionally relocated and inventoried. The most important holdings will then be published by means of a joint database on the internet.
Who Owns the Images? Legal Questions in Digital Photography
Since the early nineties at the latest, a disturbing gap has become apparent between the rapid technical development of digital media and their economic use and the legal protection of artistic, scientific and technical accomplishments in these new forms of use, which have, until now, been regulated by traditional copyright legislation. The German legislative did not create new laws for the needs of the information society; instead, substantial parts of the existing legislation were amended to meet international and European Union standards by the year 2003 in a drawn-out adjustment process. In the following, the problems and legal questions applicable to digital photography are explained on the basis of the revised wording of the law and applied to everyday situations in museums and archives.
Praxis der Archive und Museen - Rechtsfragen - Inhalte des
Urheberrechtsgesetzes - Schutz von Datenbankwerken - Digitale
Arbeitsprozesse und Verwertungsrechte - Das Vortrags-,
Aufführungs- und Vorführungsrecht an Infoterminals und
Bildschirmwiedergabegeräten - Bildbearbeitung und
Bildmanipulation - Kennzeichnung und Schutz von Fotografien -
Digitale Bildverschlüsselungssysteme - Neue Nutzungsarten und
angemessene Vergütung - Anmerkungen
Dream and Reality: A Response to Holger Simon's Article
This contribution is an attempt to take up the political cultural debate proposed by the so-called Open-Access movement from the perspective of cultural institutions. Proponents of this movement advocate that all public museums, libraries and archives permit visitors to photograph objects from their collections at no expense, or deliver reproductions of these free of charge, if possible, or for minor service fees. The customer should then to be able to use these photographs for all purposes at no further charge. This use is deliberately not limited to the areas of information and science; even commercial use should be free. This proposition is justified by arguing that the citizen has already paid for these services through taxes and dues. Cultural institutions should limit themselves to their core tasks and forgo sharing in proceeds from commercial uses of their collections. Sufficient funding of the cultural facilities by the public authorities is taken for granted.
Gemeinsame Interessen - Unterschiedliche Interessen - Lösungsansätze - Anmerkungen